The end user requires that the incoming flow is under certain conditions and this is ensured by a pressure reducer
The choice and installation of pressure regulators (or pressure reducers) for a hydraulic system is essential. In fact, the water supplied by the public distribution network is often at higher pressure values than what a domestic user actually needs. The reason for this surplus of pressure is the possibility of coping with a sudden increase in demand and ensuring simultaneous supply to several diversified users.
If, on the one hand, having high pressure is an advantage, on the other it can be a problem for the use of the domestic hydraulic system: it can, in fact, cause damage and failures that can cause inconvenience and danger, as well as being expensive to be repaired both from an economic point of view and with reference to the intervention time.
Why use a pressure regulator or reducer?
The use of pressure reducers or regulators reduces the risks mentioned above by reducing both the pressure of the incoming water and making it constant regardless of the connected public network. For this reason these components are fundamental and must be designed and studied to make them more efficient.
The main advantages consist of:
1. Constant and controlled pressure: there are no risks deriving from the opening of the connected taps;
2. Safeguarding the hydraulic system: reducing the pressure and stabilizing it, reduce the problems that can arise from high pressure, especially in the presence of boilers;
3. Reducing the noise of the system: a pressure surge can also provoke loud noises and, through these devices, it is possible to reduce this problem;Minimizing the problem of cavitation: this problem is central in hydraulic systems and is due to the formation of vapor zones. Such bubbles lead to:
- Damage to the components;
- Loss of efficiency of the plant;
- Noise emission
4. Reduction of consumption and savings from an economic point of view.
How do pressure regulators or reducers work?
Usually the pressure regulators or reducers can be either mechanical or electronic. The former have a longer duration than the latter since the operating system is less complex. In fact, they consist of a spring that manages to change the flow rate inside the duct, even if they still need to be controlled by electronic devices: they move the position of the spring in the valve ensuring a constant flow rate over time and, therefore, also constant pressure.
The fundamental parameter in this type of device is the reduction ratio, i.e. the ratio between the pressure at the inlet and outlet of the component. Generally, to avoid the cavitation problems mentioned, multi-stage pressure reducers are used (typically two), thus improving both the life of the system and its efficiency.
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